Friday, February 21, 2020
How Gorbachev's regime come to an end, collapsing the Soviet Union - Research Paper Example There are a variety of reasons why the Soviet Union collapsed, bringing the era of Communism with it. Wohlworth (1994-1995) states that the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War is a complex event that has no easy answers. He also states that the theories which have been put forth to explain the end of the Cold War have been weak, and that it is necessary to disaggregate the end of the Cold War to get to a theory which might be plausible. He states that there were three keys to understanding what happened with the Soviet Union at the end of the Gorbachev era. The first key is that the Ã¢â¬Å"decision-makers' assessments of power are what mattersÃ¢â¬ (Wohlworth, 1994-1995, p. 97). In particular, Wohlworth states that power is complex and it can be thought of either in terms of capabilities or influence. Capabilities are reassessed according to new and different information about non-material elements of capability, even when there is only a slight change in the mater ial measures. He also states that expectations inform policy, as all policies are future oriented. Therefore, a decision to reform, go to war, or retrench is contingent upon an assessment of what the future may hold. For instance, a nation may look and see that it is in decline. If this decline is reversible, then the nation may decide against a risky decision, such as warfare, and opt instead of a less-risky course of action, such as reform or retrenchment. The second key, according to Wohlworth (1994-1995), is that if the nation in the decline is a challenger, as opposed to a hegemon, that nation is more likely to retrench and reform instead of opting for war. This would help explain the end of the Soviet Union, as it was not a declining hegemon, but, rather, a declining challenger. The Soviet Union, while chafing against the American-dominated system of global influence, knew that it was not the predominant influence in the world. Therefore, as the Soviet Union was aware of its s tatus on the world stage Ã¢â¬â that it was not the dominant influence in the world, but, rather, a challenger, it did not want to go to war to preserve the status quo of its country. This theory is in contrast of an early theory of hegemonic war, put forth by Thucydides, that war may occur when there is a dynamic challenger and a moribund hegemon. In Thucydides' theory, the Soviet Union would have to have been dynamic, which means that it was in the process of transitioning to a hegemon, and the United States would have to be a moribund, which would mean that it was on the decline. While Wohlworth acknowledges that, at one point, the Soviet Union was a dynamic challenger, in the 1950s and 1960s, by the time the Soviet Union collapsed, it was a moribund challenger. In contrast, at this same point, the United States was a dynamic defender and hegemon. Therefore, the Soviet Union could not, rationally, have chosen to go to war to protect itself, because it saw the end
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Explain database security issues - Essay Example Locking refers to the means of synchronization of potentially simultaneous database or even other ordinary resourceÃ¢â¬â¢s utilization. In operating systems, locking helps in enforcing and ascertaining the occurrence of events in the appropriate series (Pratt & Adamski, 2011). As the most effective means of enhancing security of data, encryption refers to the translation of data into ciphertext form, which cannot be understood easily by illicit individuals. Therefore, encryption involves the conversion of essential data into secret codes. Encrypted data is sent in codes instead of plain, simple words making it necessary for the receiverÃ¢â¬â¢s computer to decrypt such data for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s display. The reader of such data requires a secret password or key to enhance decryption of the data (Pratt & Adamski, 2011). Views refer to the saved select statements, which permit an individual to work upon the outcomes returned from them. Views are essential in provision of column- or row-level data access, wrapping up sophisticated joints, executing sophisticated collective queries, and tailoring data display (Singh & Kanjilal, 2009). Views are fundamental security tools, habitually utilized in thwarting users from having unrestricted access to tables whereas permitting them to operate with the presented data. All consents can be eradicated from the principal tables, and provided the tableÃ¢â¬â¢s owner is the viewÃ¢â¬â¢s owner, the user will have the ability of interacting with the given data, but based on authorizations approved to the view (Pratt & Adamski, 2011). Duplication (replication) refers to a set of catalog objects and data copying and distribution technologies from a given folder into another. This is followed by the sychronization between the two databases in order to uphold uniformity. In the process, a database is copied from one server into another, followed by protection of the dissimilar copies in concurrence. Data replication, on the other hand,
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
The Evolution Of Database Management System In the ancient times when there was no computer, the data began to be stored in voluminous data repositories, called books. And eventually with the improvement in technology and expansion in knowledge the whole communities of books transferred to the first real database libraries. The main objective of the database is to ensure that data can be stored and retrieved easily and effectively. It is a compilation of data (records) in a structured way. In a database, the information is stored in a tabular form where data may or may not be interlinked. Hence we can say that basically database is a compilation of database files and each database file is further a collection of records. Database models: Flat files (1960s 1980s): Flat file database is a database that stores information in a single file or table. In a text file, every line contains one record where fields either have fixed length or they are separated by commas, whitespaces, tabs or any other character. In a flat file database, there is no structural relationship among the records and they cannot contain multiple tables as well. Advantages: Flat file database is best for small databases. It is easy to understand and implement. Fewer skills are required to handle a flat file database. Less hardware and software skills are required to maintain a flat file database. Disadvantages: A flat file may contain fields which duplicate the data as there is no automation in flat files. If one record is to be deleted from the flat file database, then all the relevant information in different fields has to be deleted manually making the data manipulation inefficient. Flat file database waste the computer space by requiring it to keep the information on items that are logically cannot be available. Information retrieving is very time consuming in a large database. Implementation of a flat file database: Flat file database is implemented in: Berkeley DB SQLite Mimesis TheIntegrationEngineer etc. Hierarchical database (1970s 1990s): As the name indicates, hierarchical database contains data in a hierarchically-arranged data. More perceptively it can be visualized as a family tree where there is a parent and a child relationship. Each parent can have many children but one child can only have one parent i.e.; one-to-many relationship. Its hierarchical structure contains levels or segments which are equivalent to the file systems record type. All attributes of a specific record are listed under the entity type. In hierarchical database, the entity type is the main table, rows of a table represent the records and columns represent the attributes. In the above figure, CUSTOMER is the parent and it has two children (CHCKACCT SAVEACCT). Advantages: In a hierarchical database pace of accessing the information is speedy due to the predefined paths. This increases the performance of a database. The relationships among different entities are easy to understand. Disadvantages: Hierarchical database model lacks flexibility. If a new relationship is to be established between two entities then a new and possibly a redundant database structure has to be build. Maintenance and of data is inefficient in a hierarchical model. Any change in the relationships may require manual reorganization of the data. This model is also inefficient for non-hierarchical accesses. Network database (1970s 1990s): The inventor of network model is Charles Bachmann. Unlike hierarchical database model, network database allows multiple parent and child relationships i.e., it maintains many-to-many relationship. Network database is basically a graph structure. The network database model was created to achieve three main objectives: To represent complex data relationships more effectively. To improve the performance of the database. To implement a database standard. In a network database a relationship is referred to as a set. Each set comprises of two types of records, an owner record which is same as parent type in hierarchical and a member record which is similar to the child type record in hierarchical database model. Advantages: The network database model makes the data access quite easy and proficient as an application can access the owner record and all the member records within a set. This model is conceptually easy to design. This model ensures data integrity because no member can exist without an owner. So the user must make an owner entry and then the member records. The network model also ensures the data independence because the application works independently of the data. Disadvantages: The model lacks structural independence which means that to bring any change in the database structure; the application program must also be modified before accessing the data. A user friendly database management system cannot be established via network model. Implementation of network database: Network database is implemented in: Digital Equipment Corporation DBMS-10 Digital Equipment Corporation DBMS-20 RDM Embedded Turbo IMAGE Univac DMS-1100 etc. Relational database (1980s present): Relational database model was proposed by E.F. Codd. After the hierarchical and network model, the birth of this model was huge step ahead. It allows the entities to be related through a common attribute. So in order to relate two tables (entities), they simply need to have a common attribute. In the tables there are primary keys and alternative keys. Primary keys form a relation with the alternative keys. This property makes this model extremely flexible. Thus using relational database ample information can be stored using small tables. The accessing of data is also very efficient. The user only has to enter a query, and the application provides the user with the asked information. Relational databases are established using a computer language, Structured Query Language (SQL). This language forms the basis of all the database applications available today, from Access to Oracle. Advantages: Relational database supports mathematical set of operations like union, intersection, difference and Cartesian product. It also supports select, project, relational join and division operations. Relational database uses normalization structure which helps to achieve data independence more easily. Security control can also be implemented more effectively by imposing an authorization control on the sensitive attributes present in a table. Relational database uses a language which is easy and human readable. Disadvantages: The response to a query becomes time-consuming and inefficient if the number of tables between which the relationships are established increases. Implementation of Relational Database: Oracle Microsoft IBM My SQL PostgreSQL SQLite Object-oriented database (1990s present): Object oriented database management system is that database system in which the data or information is presented in the form of objects, much like in object-oriented programming language. Furthermore, object oriented DBMS also facilitate the user by offering transaction support, language for various queries, and indexing options. Also, these database systems have the ability to handle data efficiently over multiple servers. Unlike relational database, object-oriented database works in the framework of real programming languages like JAVA or C++. Advantages: If there are complex (many-to-many) relationships between the entities, the object-oriented database handles them much faster than any of the above discussed database models. Navigation through the data is much easier. Objects do not require assembly or disassembly hence saving the coding and execution time. Disadvantages: Lower efficiency level when data or relationships are simple. Data can be accessible via specific language using a particular API which is not the case in relational databases. Object-relational database (1990s present): Defined in simple terms, an object relational database management system displays a modified object-oriented user-display over the already implemented relational database management system. When various software interact with this modified-database management system, they will customarily operate in a manner such that the data is assumed to be saved as objects. The basic working of this database management system is that it translates the useful data into organized tables, distributed in rows and columns, and from then onwards, it manages data the same way as done in a relational database system. Similarly, when the data is to be accessed by the user, it is again translated from processed to complex form. Advantages: Data remains encapsulated in object-relational database. Concept of inheritance and polymorphism can also be implemented in this database. Disadvantages: Object relational database is complex. Proponents of relational approach believe simplicity and purity of relational model are lost. It is costly as well. Web enabled database (1990s present): Web enabled database simply put a database with a web-based interface. This implies that there can be a separation of concerns; namely, the web designer does not need to know the details about the DBs underlying design. Similarly, the DB designer needs to concern himself with the DBs web interface. A web enabled database uses three layers to function: a presentation layer, a middle layer and the database layer. Advantages: A web-enabled database allows users to get the information they need from a central repository on demand. The database is easy and simple to use. The data accessibility is easy via web-enabled database. Disadvantages: Main disadvantage is that it can be hacked easily. Web enabled databases support the full range of DB operations, but in order to make them easy to use, they must be dumped down.
Monday, January 20, 2020
The Importance of Sleep in MacbethÃ Ã Ã The image of sleep is consistently mentioned in Macbeth with the intention of creating a symbolic importance.Ã Macbeth himself notes that the sleep he discusses with us, is that that Ã¢â¬Ëknits upÃ¢â¬â¢, meaning the sleep which smoothes out and pieces together. Macbeth recites this after he has spoken to Lady Macbeth directly after he committed the bloody murder of King Duncan.Ã He cried, Ã¢â¬ËSleep no more!Ã¢â¬â¢ to all the house:Ã¢â¬â¢Glamis hath murderÃ¢â¬â¢d sleep, and therefore Cawdor Shall sleep no more, Macbeth shall sleep no more!Ã¢â¬â¢ He frantically and almost deliriously raves, which highlights his conscience, is already bothering him. Ã The image of sleep is symbolized by Shakespeare to highlight one of the plays themes, conscious.Ã In reality sleep rests the mind, refreshes the mind and eases a person allowing them to function normally.Ã It is a fact that a person cannot survive without sleepÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã And Macbeth as well as Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s characters demonstrate this.Ã They both will never be at peace againÃ¢â¬ ¦&nb...
Saturday, January 11, 2020
For the last thirty years, junk food has been part of our daily life. Whenever we are hungry, we want to celebrate, or have a quick easy meal, we resort to fast food. In this way, pizza, hamburgers, carbonated beverages (sodas), fried chicken, among others, have replaced the nutritious foods in our diet. But this is not the healthy way to nourish ourselves. In my opinion, junk food is certainly not the healthier option when we have to choose what to include in our diet. I clearly know and agree with doctors that junk food consumption must be controlled. Yet, do people really know the consequences this fatty, lack of protein food, have in our body at the time of eating them? To begin with, obesity has a strong bond with fast food. Eating junk food regularly and having a sedentary lifestyle leads to obesity. Obesity leads to other complications like increase in the cholesterol level, blocking of the arteries, the increased risk of coronary diseases, in addition to the physical discomfo rt that extra weight causes. As fast food is addictive it is very difficult to give up on these fatty foods and carbonated drinks and switch to healthier options. That is why I conceder that junk food must not have an essential role in our diet. Furthermore, junk food has too much fat, and too much saturated fat in the diet will cause people to put on weight and get fat or obese. For the opposite, healthy foods contain more vitamins and minerals, lower levels of sodium and chemical additives, and healthier oils and fats. Junk food is high in calories but low in useful vitamins or minerals and it often gets many of its calories from unhealthy saturated fats. That is why, if all the calories that are consumed are from saturated fats, we will be replacing the healthy food for the unhealthy saturated one. Junk food also contains extra salt than the nutritious food and it is unhealthy for the heart, and can cause coronary heart disease. Sugar is essential in junk food as it makes it tast e so good. Soft drinks, cordials, biscuits, cakes and lollies all have a lot of sugar. However, too much sugar makes people fat, rots the teeth, is bad for the blood and may cause other diseases. We can observe that the harm fast food means to our body is a fact to consider controlling the amount of junk food we eat, and avoid a regular intake. In addition, the advertisement fast food restaurants have, such as Mc DonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, Burger King, Pizza Hut or Taco Bell is really efficient and has an important role on the increase of obesity all over the world. In the United Kingdom, the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Food Bill is intended to highly regulate the advertising of such food aimed at children, and many other countries are looking forward to do the same. Advertisement helps to increase the consumption of junk food, so, in my opinion, it must be also controlled by the government in order to lower the great number of obese people, harmed by the junk food. Despite the fact that junk food does not have all the nutrients we need to nourish our body, it can definitely be included in our menu, exercising a proper control over their consumption. That is to say, that the benefits of fast food, such as the taste, easy access, instant delivery and affordability can be enjoyed in a correct way if we follow a balanced diet, and in that way it would not cause harm to the body. Taking every argument into consideration, it is clear that fast food risks definitely outnumber its positive effects. The drawback of fast foo d is that it has almost zero nutritious value. The desire of fast food among children and adults is so much that it has been installed in our daily life, and one cannot avoid its consumption. To conclude, it is not wrong to eat junk food sometimes, provided that it is included in a balanced nutritious diet, controlling the correct amount of it.
Friday, January 3, 2020
10. Risk Management 10.1 Name Risk Management System (Name RMS) Name Risk Management System (Name RMS) aims to effectively and efficiently manage and assess all the critical risks due to both external and internal factors with the suitable action plans on specific risks, which gives the least possible adverse effects to the customers and company. The holistic framework of the system includes 4 key steps: risk planning, risk assessment, risk handling and risk monitoring showed in Figure 1. Figure 1: Name RMS process layout1 10.2 Risk Planning The project manager such as the product creator in Name Company takes the responsibility of reviewing the risk assessment documents and tracking the progress of control measures withÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The PESTEL analysis model is firstly applied to identify the external risks from the light switch products which impact the surrounding business environment. The PESTEL model includes 5 different aspects of external risk factors such as Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal. To complete the risk identification, the internal risks is required to consider by understanding 4 key areas to the company like Strength, Weakness, Threats and Opportunities in the SWOT analysis model. By thinking the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal factors such as Strength and Weakness and finding out the potential external factors such as Opportunities and threats from the environment to the company, help to establish better mitigation measures and strategies to prevent uncertainties events and serious consequences to occur in short term and future. Both of the model results can be found in Appendix. The risk register spreadsheet tool called Circa RiskCom spreadsheet tool is employed for a good and detailed risk assessment table which is shown in Appendix. It combines the both analysis models with residual risk assessment and evaluation of control strategy costs. The risks are split into 3 categories like LÃ¢â¬â Least, MÃ¢â¬âMedium and HÃ¢â¬âHighest for assessing the likelihood and severity consequences of each key risk. 10.3.2 Risk Analysis From the risk
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Study Citation: Kaye, D., Kirschner, P., Mandler, G. (1953). The effect of test anxiety on memory span in a group test situation. Journal Of Consulting Psychology, 17(4), 265-266. doi:10.1037/h0054617 Introduction and review of prior research: The effect of anxiety on test performance has been investigated in several researches but this particular study tried to find out the relationship between anxiety level and test performance by conducting the experiment in a group test situation. In previous studies, the effects of test anxiety level on the individual performance of typical intelligence tasks were shown. In this study, researchers investigated the same effect but in a group test situation and assumed people with low anxiety level would outperform those with higher anxiety level. Design: This is a non-experimental design, more accurate, a correlational design, as subjects took a questionnaire on anxiety and some of those who were identified as Low Anxiety and High Anxiety were chosen and were given a memory span test afterwards. Participants were all from introductory psychology courses which might be a confounding variable as there would be a possibility of good participant effect and bad participant effect, due to the fact that they might have certain knowledge of memory tests. Therefore, they were not told anything about the connection between the anxiety questionnaire and the memory test session in order to eliminate discrepancy in results. An importantShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Standardized Tests On Students Academic Performance1469 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStandardized tests have become the pragmatic form of gauging a childÃ¢â¬â¢s intellect, and also have become the major factor in universities accepting applicants. Behind the results of each test lies the ability to mould a childÃ¢â¬â¢s future, with test for every occasion whether it is for medical school, an International Baccalaureate entrance exam, college or university admission, there is no escaping such discriminatory tests. These tests are designed to predict a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s intellect, as well as evaluateRead MoreDerogatory Music s Effects On Overall Mood And Test Performance1160 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Derogatory MusicÃ¢â¬â¢s Effects on Overall Mood and Test Performance Rebecca Smith Arcadia University Derogatory MusicÃ¢â¬â¢s Effects on Overall Mood and Test Performance We believe that music with certain messages can have an effect on mood states. In this experiment we will be looking at how derogatory music will affect the mood state and test performance of women. We believe that music that has sexist themes will result in low mood states and test results of the females in that conditionRead More The effect of the use of video texts on ESL listening test-taker performance1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The effect of the use of video texts on ESL listening test-taker performance.Ã¢â¬ While the article itself was based heavily around the experiment conducted to test the effectiveness of video texts in testing listening, Wagner posed very interesting questions which he hoped his findings would portray. WagnerÃ¢â¬â¢s first question was the most interesting and asked, Ã¢â¬Å"1. To what extent does the use of video texts on an ESL listening test affect test-taker performance on that test? Do those test-takersRead MoreSleep And Slow Wave Sleep Essay1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesyounger adults; however, the older adultsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance did not improve following sleep, suggesting that sleep dependent memory consolidation decreases with age . This may reflect the disturbed sleep and disrupted SWS in the elderly [3,8,9]. Slow wave sleep increases until shortly before puberty and then shows a prominent drop across adolescence, decreasing by more than 60% between ages 10 and 20 years . It is critical to understand the cognitive effects of normal sleep in order to understand theRead MoreAntarctica And Its Effects On Antarctica788 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPlease note that you will have 4 minutes to recall the Ã¢â¬ ¨facts, and that you will be taking the test immediately.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¨The word Antarctica was shown in italics to make it clear Ã¢â¬ ¨that they were only to be asked to recall information about Ã¢â¬ ¨Antarctica. Participants in the delayed condition were given Ã¢â¬ ¨the same prompt except they were asked to predict their performance after a 30-min delay: Ã¢â¬Å"In thirty minutes you will be asked to recall as many facts about Antarctica as you can. What percentage of Ã¢â¬ ¨theRead MoreStrategies for Test Taking and Their Effects Essay1045 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBelcher (1985) maintained that test score reflects both the knowledge and aptitude of test takers and the ability of using the characteristics and format of test effectively (as cited in Pour-Mohammadi and Zainol Abidin 2012). Popham Madaus (1987) and Romberg, Williams, Zarrinnia (1989) defined testing as high stakes, because they influence both local and state administratorsÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions about curriculum, appropriate programs, learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ promotion (as cited in Herman, Dreyfus, Golan 1990). Pour-MohammadiRead MoreEffects Of Stereotype Threat On Women s Performance1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAlleviating The Effects of Stereotype Threat in WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Performance in STEM Tasks Stereotyping is a way for individuals to associate a group concept with a specified attribute. The association between two unrelated concepts can become linked via a third concept (e.g. the self). Drawn from this, there are two types of stereotypes, that is, implicit stereotypes and explicit stereotypes. Implicit stereotypes are linked to automatic thinking in the cognitive process, as individuals are not consciouslyRead MorePsychological Factor That Affect Sports Performance997 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfactor that can affect sports performance and is defined as the level of activation or readiness that an individual will experience when faced with a task (Malpeli 2010, pg. 369). Effective performance requires an athlete to achieve optimal arousal which can be recognised in certain arousal theories (Malpeli 2010, pg. 369). The level of arousal that is considered to be optimal varies among every individual (Abernethy 2013, pg. 304). High arousal can affect performance as it often lead s to more tenseRead MoreConstruct Developed in Psychometrics to Determine Cognitive Abilities971 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescognitive abilities. It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among various cognitive tasks, which demonstrate an individuals performance at one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to his or her performance at other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimates of an individuals g factor rating (Kamphaus et al. 2005). The terms IQ, general intelligenceRead MoreTesting Is A Form Of Testing Used By Our Educational System1002 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesstudent takes 112 mandated standardized tests between PreKindergarten and twelfth grade. The use of these tests became mandatory in 2002 as part of the No Child Left Behind Act. Although there are some individuals who support these tests, many parents, students, and teachers exper ience the negative effects year after year. Standardized tests impact students emotionally and do not provide accurate results of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s education level or teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. They take away from students learning new